Ornament of Satis, daughter of Hor, c. 980 BC

Ornament of Satis, daughter of Hor, c. 980 BC
Period:Egypt, 3rd Intermediate Period, High-Priests And Priest-Kings Of Thebes
Dating:1085 BC–945 BC
Origin:Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes
Material:Faience (all types)
Physical:30cm. (11.7 in.) -

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Links to others from High-Priests And Priest-Kings Of Thebes

Ka statue, High-Priest of Thebes Period
Ornament of Satis, daughter of Hor, c. 980 BC
Overseer shawabti of Amenemope, c. 1000 BC
Overseer shawabti of Piankh, 1074-1070 BC
Red clayware shawabti of Ankhefenmut
Shawabti of Amenemope, c.1000 BC
Shawabti of Djedkhonswiwfankh, 1000 BC
Shawabti of General Amen, c. 1000 BC
Shawabti of Hor, c. 1020-975 BC
Shawabti of Nesitanebashru, 965 BC
Shawabti of Nespaheran, c. 1000 BC
Shawabti of Nespaiherhat, 1070-1030 BC
Shawabti of Nespakanwty, 1000-950 BC
Shawabti of Overseer Pahhmedat, 1000 BC
Shawabti of Pennamen, c. 1000 BC
Shawabti of Pinedjem II, 990-964 BC
Shawabti of Queen Henuttawy, c.1050 BC
Shawabti of Royal Scribe Idjedir, 1000 BC

Links to others of type Necklace

Gold and cornaline necklace, Alexandria
Ornament of Satis, daughter of Hor, c. 980 BC
  This is one of four funeral beadwork ornaments made for a noble woman named Satis. Sadly, this lady of royal blood, whose formidable family had continuously ruled Egypt for the 200 years since the reign of King Setnakhte (1185 BC) father of Ramesses III, only left a discreet memory of her presence in Thebes three thousand years ago. She died around 980 BC, before her father Hor, a high-ranking dignitary of the state. This ornament was most probably found in the Second Cache of Deir-el-Bahri.

The design is laid over three tiers. The top tier presents a simple zigzag of green tubular faience beads, bordered by single rows of tiny rings in green, white, black, and red. In the second tier, the same green tubular beads are arranged in a diamond pattern, with tiny ring beads providing articulations to soften the angles. The third tier presents fourteen amulets hung from triangles of green tubular beads, separated by mahogany red spherical beads. Since this ornament was rethreaded in modern times, it is possible that some of the amulets may not be original, but have been ‘transplanted’ from another artifact. From left to right, the amulets are:

1-3) Green faience amulets of Goddess Taweret, protectress of pregnant women, who had the body and head of a hippopotamus, the tail of a crocodile, and the paws of a lioness. Here she is seen holding the ‘Girdle of Isis.’ Taweret was an immensely popular goddess throughout Egyptian history, but her cult was more a private affair than the object of grandiose state-sponsored building projects. Indeed, “. . . when worship of gods other than Aten was proscribed, there are even examples of Taweret images from the site of Tell-el-Amarna, the center of worship of Aten [which] emphasizes the importance of this protectress of pregnant women in the lives of the common people, who did not cease their worship of this popular goddess” (Redford 2001:351). For a parallel, see Petrie (1914:47).

4) Green faience Udjat Eye (the “left eye of Horus”), symbolizing healing and offering protection from harm. This amulet was mounted sideways, which might be an indication that it did not originally belong to this ornament.

5, 6) Cornelian (?) amulets of Horus the Child seated. “. . . amulets of this type represent only Horus the Child, the infant son of Isis for whose protection his mother wove potent spells which would be accessible to the amulet’s wearer” (Andrews 1994:16). For a parallel, see Petrie (1914:35, fig. 145h).

7) Green faience wadj or papyrus scepter in amuletic form, with three circular markings below the blossoms and basal leaves. “To the Egyptians the green of fresh vegetation which symbolized new life and, by extension, resurrection, was exemplified by the papyrus plant” (Andrews 1994:82). For a parallel, see Petrie (1914:12, fig. 20e).

8) Green faience Djed-pillar, symbol of enduring stability. The possessor of this amulet “will be a worthy spirit who will be in the realm of the dead on the New Year’s Day like those who are in the train of Osiris” (Andrews 1994:83). For a parallel, see Petrie (1914:15, fig. 35e).

9) Alabaster (?) heart amulet (opert). “To the Egyptians, the heart was the most essential of the organs. . . because they believed it was the seat of intelligence. . . The Egyptians tended to depict the heart in the form of an egg-shaped vessel, its greater width near the top, with a flat topped rim surmounted by a ribbed suspension tube and what looks like long lug handles” (Andrews 1994:72). For a parallel, see Petrie (1914:10, fig. 7e).

10) Horus the Child, see 5 & 6 above.

11-14) Taweret, see 1-4 above.

Hor, who died before his older brother Pinedjem II, had accumulated an impressive list of titles that included: prophet of Amun, god’s father of Khonsw, god’s father of Mut, prophet of Anubis and Konsw, prophet of Hathor at Gebelein, prophet of Khonshw-ity at Gebelein, prophet of Seth of Sepermerw, prophet of Amun of the Thrones of Two Lands, master of the Holy of Holies in Thebes. He was the brother of Pinedjem II the ruling king of Thebes (990-969), the son of Menkheperre the high priest of Thebes (1045-1032 BC) and king of Thebes (1032-992 BC), the grandson of Pinedjem I the high priest of Thebes (1070-1054 BC) and king of Thebes (1054-1032 BC) and of Queen Henuttawy (c.1085-1035 BC), daughter of Ramesses XI (1098-1070 BC), last king of Dynasty 20.

“The sarcophagus of Hor (Cairo 29619)… was one of the most sumptuous: It was a triple set, where the innermost gilded sarcophagus also served as a cartonnage… It also featured a short legend inscribed: ‘Hor, prophet of Amun, prophet of Seth and Separmerw, son of first prophet of Amun Menkheperre, true of voice.’ This inscription confirms that Hor was indeed related to the great priests. Found in the ‘great chamber,’ [of the Second Cache] the sarcophagus contained its mummy which according to Daressy, although ransacked in antiquity, still preserved its Osirian shroud, with wrappings and papyri that were inscribed (probably upon burial) to the name of the first prophet of Amun, Pinedjem, son of Menkheperre, year 3. His bright blue shawabtis, are amongst the best crafted. Finely sculpted faces, black striped, three-part hairpiece with a little frontal headband, lightly relieved hoes (in black as well): they are reminiscent—albeit smaller (12-14 cm instead of 16-18 cm)—of the shawabtis of his brother Pinedjem II” (Aubert 1998:81 #29, pl. 12).

Bibliography (for this item)

Andrews, Carol
1994 Amulets of Ancient Egypt. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX. (16, 72, 82, 83)

Aubert, Liliane
1998 Les Statuettes Funeraires de la Deuxieme Cachette à Deir el-Bahari. Cybele, Paris, France. (Pl. XII, 81 # 29)

Khalil, Hassan M.
1976 Preliminary Studies on the Sanusret Collection. Manuscript, Musée l’Egypte et le Monde Antique, Monaco-Ville, Monaco. ([4]95-97)

Petrie, W.M. Flinders
1914 Amulets. Constable & Company, London, UK. (12 fig. 20e, 15 fig. 38e
35 fig. 145h, 47)

Redford, Donald B.
2001 Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, London. (351)

Bibliography (on Hor)

Aubert, Liliane
1998 Les Statuettes Funeraires de la Deuxieme Cachette à Deir el-Bahari. Cybele, Paris, France. (pl. 12)

Clayton, Peter A.
1994 Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, London, UK. (171, 175)

Gauthier, Henri
1912 Le livre des rois d’Egypte. Tome 1: des origines à la fin de la XIIe dynastie. Institut Français d’Archeologie Orientale, Cairo, Egypt.

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