These tables list almost all known
kings from Dynasty 1 to the last of the Ptolemys. The list can be
ordered chronologically, alphabetically,
by dynasty, or by
reign duration. Note that listing by dynasty and listing chronogically
are not the same thing, because Egyptian dynasties do not always occur sequentially.
Instead, there were periods during which several dynasties coexisted.
There are many ways to spell Egyptian names
(see Spelling Egyptian). In general, we have opted for methods using
the original Egyptian consonants, with a token glide-vowel where
necessary. If you are having trouble finding someone, try the Name
Index which includes many alternate spellings.
The “usual name” shown in our lists are the names and
spellings by which we believe most current Egyptologists would refer
to a particular king. When available, we included the first (Horus),
fourth (throne), and fifth (birth) names of the Pharaohs (see The
Five Names of Pharaoh).
In general, we adopted the chronology of Clayton (1994). While the
relative lengths of reigns are fairly well documented, the exact
dating is subject to margins of errors that vary from 200 years
at the onset, tapering to almost nothing by the beginning of Dynasty